Address:  P.O. Box 1738 - 3000 DR Rotterdam - Netherlands
Office: Mandeville building (T), Room T13.46
Phone: +31 10 408 8709
PGP: Key, C58E DEDA 012A 516A
Office hours:  Click here to make an appointment


Journal Articles

Miklashevsky, M., Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M.H. (2021). The force of numbers: Investigating manual signatures of embodied number processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.590508

Böffel, C., Herbst, C., Lindemann, O. & Müsseler, J. (2020). Spatial-Numerical Associations in the Presence of an Avatar are Influenced by Spontaneous Response Code Changes. Psychological Research. doi: 10.1007/s00426-020-01424-y

Colling, L, Szűcs, D., ... Lindemann, O. et al. (2020). Registered Replication Report on Fischer, Castel, Dodd, and Pratt (2003). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. 3(2), 143–162. doi: 10.1177/2515245920903079

Krause, F., Meyer, M., Bekkering, H., Hunnius, S. & Lindemann, O. (2019). Interaction between Perceptual and Motor Magnitudes in Early Childhood. Developmental Psychology. 49, 11-19. doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2018.11.001

Sixtus, E., Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M. H. (2018). Incidental counting: Speeded number naming through finger movements. Journal of Cognition, 1(1), 44, 1-11. doi: 10.5334/joc.49

Sixtus, E., Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M. H. (2018). Stimulating Numbers: Signatures of Finger Counting in Numerosity Processing. Psychological Research, 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s00426-018-0982-y

Wiemers, M., Bekkering, H. & Lindemann, O. (2017). Is More Always Up? Evidence for a Preference of Hand-Based Associations over Vertical Number Mappings. Journal of Cognitive Psychology. 29(5), 642-652. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2017.1302451 [pdf]

Sixtus, E., Fischer, M. H. & Lindemann, O. (2017). Finger Posing Primes Number Comprehension. Cognitive Processing, 18, 237-248. doi: 10.1007/s10339-017-0804-y [pdf]

Wiemers, M., Bekkering, H. & Lindemann, O. (2017). Two Attributes of Number Meaning: Numerical Associations with Visual Space and Size Exist in Parallel. Experimental Psychology, 64(4), 253-261. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000366 [pdf]

Krause, F., Bekkering, H., Pratt, J. & Lindemann, O. (2017). Interaction between Numbers and Size during Visual Search. Psychological Research, 81(3), 664-677. doi: 10.1007/s00426-016-0771-4 [pdf]

Nazir, T. A., Hrycyk, L., Moreau, Q., Frak, V., Cheylus, A., Ott, L., Lindemann, O., Fischer, M. H., Paulignan, Y. & Delevoye-Turrell, Y. (2017). A Simple Technique to Study Embodied Language Processes: The Grip-Force Sensor. Behavior Research Methods, 49, 61-73. doi: 10.3758/s13428-015-0696-7 [pdf]

Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M (2015). Editorial: Embodied Number Processing. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, 381-387. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2015.1032295. [pdf]

Stapel, J. C., Hunnius, S., Bekkering, H. & Lindemann, O. (2015). The Development of Numerosity Estimation: Evidence for a Linear number Representation Early in Life. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 27, 400-412. doi: 10.1080/20445911.2014.995668 [pdf]

Wiemers, M., Bekkering, H. & Lindemann, O. (2014). Spatial Interferences in Mental Arithmetic: Evidence from the Motion-Arithmetic Compatibility Effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(8), 1557-1570. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.889180 [pdf]

Krause, F. & Lindemann, O. (2014). Expyriment: A Python Library for Cognitive and Neuroscientific Experiments. Behavior Research Methods, 46(2), 416-428. doi: 10.3758/s13428-013-0390-6 [pdf]

Krause, F. Lindemann, O., Toni, I., & Bekkering, H. (2014). Different Brains Process Numbers Differently: Structural Bases of Individual Differences in Numerical Representations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26(4), 768-776. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00518 [pdf]

Van Dam, W., Rueschemeyer, S.-A., Bekkering, H. & Lindemann, O. (2013). Embodied Grounding of Memory: Toward the Effects of Motor Execution on Memory consolidation. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 12, 2310-2328. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2013.777084 [pdf]

Krause, F., Bekkering, H. & Lindemann, O. (2013). A feeling for numbers: Shared Metric for Symbolic and Tactile Numerosities. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 (7). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00007 [pdf]

Lindemann, O. & Krause, F. (2012). Zählen mit den Fingern: Verkörperung oder Veranschaulichung? Lernen und Lernstörungen, 1(1), 60–62. doi: 10.1024/2235-0977/a000009 [pdf]

Paulus, M., van Dam, W., Hunnius, S., Lindemann, O. & Bekkering, H. (2011). Action-effect Binding by Observational Learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1022-1028. doi: 10.3758/s13423-011-0136-3 [pdf]

Lindemann, O., Nuku, P., Rueschemeyer, S.-A. & Bekkering, H. (2011). Grasping the other's attention:  The Role of Animacy in Action Cueing of Joint Attention. Vision Research, 51(8), 940-944. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2010.12.009 [pdf]

Lindemann, O. & Tira, M. (2011). Operational Momentum in Numerosity Production Judgements of Multi-digit Number Problems. Journal of Psychology, 219(1), 50-57. doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000046 [pdf]

Lindemann, O., Alipour, A. & Fischer, M. H. (2011). Finger Counting Habits in Middle-Eastern and Western Individuals: An Online survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 566-578. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2010.12.009 [pdf]

Girardi, G.*, Lindemann, O.* & Bekkering, H. (2010). Context Effects on the Processing of Action-relevant Object Features. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36(2), 330-340. doi: 10.1037/a0017180 (*shared first authorship) [pdf]

Rueschemeyer, S.-A. Lindemann, O., van Rooij, D., van Dam, W. & Bekkering, H. (2010). Effects of Intentional Motor Actions on Embodied Language Processing. Experimental Psychology, 57(4), 260-266. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169/a000031 [pdf]

van Dam, W., Rueschemeyer, S.-A. Lindemann, O. & Bekkering, H. (2010). Context Effects in Embodied Lexical-Semantic Processing. Frontiers in Cognition. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00150 [pdf]

Rueschemeyer, S.-A. van Rooij, D., Lindemann, O., Willems, R. M. & Bekkering, H. (2010). The Function of Words: Distinct Neural Correlates for Words Denoting Differently Manipulable Objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(8), 1844-1851. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2009.21310 [pdf]

Lindemann, O. & Bekkering, H. (2009). Object Manipulation and Motion Perception: Evidence of an Influence of Action Planning on Visual Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 35(4), 1062-1071. doi: 10.1037/a0015023 [pdf]

Paulus, M., Lindemann, O. & Bekkering, H. (2009). Motor Simulation in Verbal Knowledge Acquisition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62(12), 2298-2305. doi: 10.1080/17470210903108405 [pdf]

Lindemann, O., Rueschemeyer, S.-A. & Bekkering, H. (2009). Symbols in Numbers: From Numerals to Magnitude Information. Commentary. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 32(3-4), 341-342. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X09990550 [pdf]

Rueschemeyer, S.-A., Lindemann, O., van Elk, M. & Bekkering, H. (2009). Embodied cognition: The Interplay between Automatic Resonance and Selection-for-Action Mechanisms. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 1180-1187. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.662 [pdf]

Rueschemeyer, S.-A., Lindemann, O., van Elk, M. & Bekkering, H. (2009). Resonance and Intention in Embodied Theories of Language. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39:1194-1195. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.683 [pdf]

Lindemann, O., Abolafia, J. M., Pratt, J. & Bekkering, H. (2008). Coding Strategies in Number Space: Memory Requirements Influence Spatial-Numerical Associations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61(4), 515-524. doi: 10.1080/17470210701728677 [pdf]

Lindemann, O., Abolafia, J. M., Girardi, G. & Bekkering, H. (2007). Getting a Grip on Numbers: Numerical Magnitude Priming in Object Grasping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 33(6), 1400-1409. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.33.6.1400 [pdf]

Lindemann, O., Stenneken, P., van Schie, H. T. & Bekkering, H. (2006). Semantic Activation in Action Planning. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 32(3), 633-643. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.32.3.633 [pdf]

Hannus, A., Cornelissen, F. W., Lindemann, O. & Bekkering, H. (2005). Selection-for-Action in Visual search. Acta Psychologica, 118(1-2), 171-191. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2004.10.010 [pdf]

Books & Book Chapters

Lindemann, O., Heiko Etzold, Martin H. Fischer & Ulrich Kortenkamp (2017). Kognitive Effekte der Mengenrepräsentation auf die Verarbeitung subsymbolischer Stellenwerttafeln. In Institut für Mathematik der Universität Potsdam (Hrsg.), Beiträge zum Mathematikunterricht 2017. Münster: WTM-Verlag.

Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M. H. (2015). Cognitive Foundations of Human Number Representations and Mental Arithmetic. In R. Cohen Kadosh & A. Dowker (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Numerical Cognition. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Van Elk, M., Van Schie, H. T., Lindemann, O. & Bekkering, H. (2007). Using Conceptual Knowledge in Action and Language. In P. Haggard, Y. Rossetti, & M. Kawato (Eds.), Attention and Performance XXII: Sensorimotor Foundation of Higher Cognition (pp. 575-599). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. [pdf]

Lindemann, O. (2008). Action and Cognitive Processing: Functional Links between Action Planning and the Processing of Perceptual, Semantic and Mathematical Information. PhD Thesis. University of Groningen, Groningen. [pdf]

Published Abstracts

Sixtus, E., Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M. (2014). The Flexibility of Finger-based Magnitude Representations. Cognitive Processing. Proceedings of 12th Biannual conference of the German Cognitive Science Society. doi: 10.1007/s10339-014-0632-2 [pdf]

Lindemann, O. & Paulus, M. (2012). Acquisition of action knowledge through verbal and social learning. Cognitive Processing. Special Issue ICSC 2012 5th International Conference on Spatial Cognition: Space and Embodied Cognition, 13, S10-S10. [pdf]

Technical Reports

Lindemann, O. & Fischer, M. H. (2013). Learning Effects of Arithmetic Problem Solving while Unlocking a Mobile Phone. Technical Report. University of Potsdam. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.18094 [pdf]

Open Science

Open Source / Free Software

  • Expyriment: An open-source and platform-independent lightweight Python library for designing and conducting timing-critical behavioral and neuroimaging experiments ( [Github]
  • pyForceDAQ: Python DAQ Library and Application for ATI Force Sensors and NI-DAQ. [Github]
  • Pytrack: Python-based Motion Tracking Software for 3D Guidance trakSTAR. [Github]
  • Numprod: Numerosity Production Task, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.18080 [Github]

Open Data

I'm publishing all raw data that are necessary to reproduce the reported results of my first and last author empirical publications. Find below a list of data sets that are currently available online via the Potsdam Mind Research Repository (PMR2) or the Open Science Framework (OSF). If you need data from a publication that is not listed below, please contact me.

  • Wiemers Bekkering & Lindemann (in press-2) [OSF]
  • Wiemers Bekkering & Lindemann (in press-1) [OSF]
  • Lindemann & Tira (2011) [OSF]
  • Lindemann & Bekkering (2009) [OSF]
  • Lindemann, Abolafia, Pratt & Bekkering (2008) [PMR]
  • Lindemann, Abolafia, Girardi & Bekkering (2007) [PMR]

Doctoral Dissertations Supervised

Florian Krause, 2010 - 2014, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen; Title: ''Numbers and magnitude in the brain: a sensorimotor grounding of numerical cognition'' (pdf)

Michael Wiemers, 2012 - 2017, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen; Title: ''An Embodied Cognition Approach to Improving the Design of Mathematics Animations for Primary Education''

Elena Sixtus, 2014 - 2018, University of Potsdam; Title: ''Subtle fingers - tangible numbers: The influence of finger counting experience on mental number representations.''